Have a look at my Doctor Panda First Aid instruction video for children to learn how to treat a cut with 3 simple steps:
Tag Archives: first aid
My supervisor came back to me with information on how children learn from his friend. This will be useful and I will be using this information for my end of year report.
Children aged 4-5
With learning at this age, it is mostly all around play based activities and role play etc with some language work. This age group’s retention is quite limited and lessons often have to be repeated again and again. Most often a different approach or extension of it into art/drama/listening/dance/role play to ensure they’ve got the particular lesson, so it often overlaps many areas.
Repetition, repetition and repetition
I believe my project allows children to learn first aid whilst playing a new activity. I will have repetition in my project to help the children remember the lesson. The instruction video will tell the child the steps for taking care of the first aid situation and icons will appear to represent them. At the end all the icons will appear to remind the child. I think I will have the main character go through the steps quickly again just to sum up the steps. Then the child will be given an activity to ensure they retained the information. They will be presented with cards each with one of the icons. They place them in the correct order. If they get stuck the icons will be the marker which is on the pop up piece which is again, more repetition to get the steps across to the children. A card with the icons will also be given to the child to look at again and they can scan the marker at home and watch the scenario again.
- Children ages 5-6 years old typically can attend to one activity that is of interest to them for around 10-15 minutes at a time and should generally be able to filter out small distractions occurring simultaneously in the environment.
- They may only be able to attend to an assigned classroom activity for only 5-10 minutes particularly if they find it uninteresting or difficult for them and do not have adult guidance to stay on task.
- As a guideline some research suggests using a child’s age as a general starting point for the number of minutes a child can attend to a single assigned task…so 5 minutes for a 5-year-old, 7 minutes for a 7-year-old, etc. Small groups of children may be able to play together for 15 minutes or up to a 1/2 hour if they are engaged in novel, interesting play activities. Typically in playschool and junior classes getting children motivated, interested and engaged in the lesson is the key way of holding their attention so the lesson has to have well thought out content, well researched, and within their learning capabilities.
- It also helps to keep lessons shorter and intersperse movement activities in between your lessons that require sitting and focusing behaviors.
- Another key to success in sustaining attention with young children is to have a teacher or aide in the classroom who is always able to help with new, difficult or frustrating tasks and who can intervene and provide cues to stay on task.
- Repetition – 24 repetitions are necessary for 80% of the information to be retained long-term. Repetition need not be tedious, it could be reinforcing the lesson (in this case First Aid) by using role play, drawing, singing, etc…you can pre-expose, prime and preview information as a way to repeat it.
- Every child’s retention rate and concentration span varies so the times are guidelines, but in and around those mentioned.
How we learn
We learn 10% of what we READ
We learn 20% of what we HEAR
We learn 30% of what we SEE
We learn 50% of what we SEE and HEAR
We learn 70% of what is DISCUSSED WITH OTHERS
We learn 80% of what we EXPERIENCE PERSONALLY
We learn 90% of what we TEACH SOMEONE ELSE
Extra note from Resource
If children are using this for an interactive whiteboard activity it helps as they are moving up and around the room so they focus more. Also a good idea is using images that have something wrong in it for them to correct; eg dangers – so if there were two similar pictures on-screen eg spot the difference. Everything is usually backed up with role play and paired work at this age to gauge if they have absorbed it. Failing that one could always collapse in the class after the lesson and see if any of the tiny people would call for help or just continue playing!
My main character to narrate this scenario will be Doctor Panda.
Falls are a major cause of injury in young children. Climbing to new and adventurous heights, young children may fall off playground equipment, bikes, down stairs, from trees, out of windows, and off roofs. That is why I want to create a scenario regarding a cut/graze so young children know just what to do in that situation.
What I have in Mind & Research
Doctor Panda is going to explain the situation and run through what needs to be done to treat a cut/graze with 3 easy to follow steps. There are actually many steps you can take to treat a cut/graze and I found the following steps from: http://www.elastoplast.com.au/instant-help/health-and-protection/cuts-and-grazes
- Wash hands
- Clean Wound
- Cover the cut/graze with a plaster
The site also went into more detail about the steps to take:
- Check – Make sure the area is safe for both you and the hurt person and then try calm the hurt person
- Care – Wash your hands and the cut/graze carefully with cold water and dry before putting a plaster on
- Call – Tell an adult and if the cut/graze is very bad (bleeding is very bad and does not stop) call 999 for an ambulance
What I imagine to happen is for two cubes (extra characters) playing outside near a tree and one climbs up the tree. The tree will be a pop-up feature which the AR (augmented reality) interacts with and the tree may be made by origami. Then the cube up on the tree falls and grazes its face. (As the characters don’t have limbs I have decided to apply the graze on the face). The little cube that falls begins to cry and is very upset. The other cube checks the area is safe, calms the hurt cube and wash its hands and then the graze. It drys the area and applies a cute plaster on the graze. And lastly the cube tells an adult (possibly heading towards Doctor Panda to tell him). I will have Doctor Panda explaining that if the cut/graze is very bad (bleeding is very bad and does not stop) call 999 for an ambulance for help.
My main character for this scenario will be Fireman Chicky/Chick to teach the children how to treat a burn. (Baby chick image from Chicks in Hats).
Kitchens are a prime area for young children to get burned, either while trying to help cook or coming in contact with appliances that are still hot. They may accidentally spill a cup of hot tea or be too close to a lit fireplace. Young children are curious, small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection.
It is a good idea to teach children what to do in a situation when they or someone else accidentally burn themselves, so they can do what is necessary as soon as possible before the burn gets worse.
What I have in mind for this scenario is for the main character, Fireman Chicky, to explain the situation of a child being burnt from a cup of coffee and what do to. An animation in the background, which interacts with the pop-ups, will play using AR from Junaio. I haven’t figured out the storyboard yet as I am working out the 4 scenarios to help me with the textures of each of my characters and the extra plain cube characters in the background.
3 Step Lesson
- Check – Make sure the area is safe, move away from the danger i.e. the spilled hot cup of coffee
- Care – Put the affected area under cold running water for at least 10 minutes and dry carefully (apply cling film if possible)
- Call – Tell an adult and if it is really bad, call 999
I need to ask First Aid Aware about the steps and make sure they are correct. The cling film may be a step too far as the child may not be able to access them as they are high up, they could be tricky to use and there may be sharp edges (used to tear the cling film) which would be dangerous.
On my 999 scenario the steps were Check, Call and Care, which may be confusing for the burn accident as Care comes before Call. I think I need to think about how to phrase the steps to not confuse the children.
What I imagine to happen in the animation is two little cube characters (extras) playing in a room (kitchen/sitting room?) and one bumps into the table and spills the cup of coffee. The little cube gets in contact with the hot coffee and is crying and upset. The other cube knows what to do and Fireman Chicky is narrating what to do in this situation. The cube moves themself and the other cube away from the danger, runs the burn area under cooling water and tells and adult. If the burn is very bad they will call 999.
I’ve been researching when you should call 999 and I’m not really sure what emergency situation I should show the children. The children will be aged between 4-5 and there would be a limit to what they understand and what they can handle at such a young age so I need to consider the situation carefully.
Here are some examples of when to call 999:
Always call 999 if someone is seriously ill or injured, and their life is at risk.
- Chest pain
- Difficulty in breathing
- Severe loss of blood
- Severe burns or scalds
- Fitting or concussion
- Severe allergic reactions
But what should I demonstrate? I know I will already be having my other scenarios based on a nose bleed, taking care of a cut/graze and treating a burn so that helps narrow the situation down.
I think I will go for unconsciousness and tell the children to check if the person is unresponsive, and if not, they should get help from an adult and call 999 for an ambulance.
To be precise I would first teach the children to make sure the area is safe for the child and the unconcious person. (Check) Then tell them to talk to the person and touch them to see if they are responsive. If the person is not then they need to get healp from an adult and call 999. (Call) To call 999 they need to use their house phone, pick up the receiver and press 999. If there is no house phone for whatever reason they should use a mobile phone. An operator will answer the phone and ask questions such as what is their full name, where they are, what the situation is and the operator will be able to know they need to sent out an ambulance. The last step for the child is to stay with the unconcious person till the ambulance arrives. (Care)
I think naming the 3 steps Check, Call and Care will be suitable and I will just have the main character explaining what they mean by each step.
The first scenario will deal with how to dial 999 and when to call the emergency services by providing an example of an emergency. I’ve been looking into this topic and I have found out a lot of things.
Why should children learn to dial 999?
A mother was having an anaphylactic shock and her 2 1/2 year old daughter dialed 999 and managed to state her full name, age and address to the operator. This is pretty amazing right? Your never to young to learn to learn first aid. You can find all the information on the following link: http://www.therealsupermumblog.com/2011/04/teach-children-basic-emergency-response/
Statistics have shown, children aged 4-5 can learn basic first aid including dialing 999 in an emergency situation. Not many children know how to do this and if they do, they may not know what situation is an ’emergency’ and dial the number when not necessary. It is important to be clear to the children what kind of situation is an emergency and requires them to dial 999. A child’s concept of ’emergency’ can be different from an adults so letting the child know that losing their toy or dialing 999 as a joke is not an emergency. It’s important that children know they should call 999 in the above circumstances if there are no adults around, their call could save a person’s life.
The 3 Step Simple Lesson
I can’t overcomplicated this lesson for the children as the maximum steps I can teach children aged 4-5 is up to 3. So, to teach how and when the child should dial 999, I will provide them with 3 easy to follow steps which cover the basics.
An example of the 3 steps could be:
The 3 C’s of First Aid
- (Check) Make sure the area is safe for you and the injured person
- (Call) Tell and adult and call 999
- (Care) Stay and comfort the injured person
Step 1 Check
These will be the 3 key steps but for each one I will include a little more detail to explain what the steps mean. For this scenario I could play out an emergency situation and explain the hazards to watch out for and if the coast is clear they move onto the next step. The child needs to understand that they are safe before continuing onto the next step.
Step 2 Call
If an adult is present the child can call for their aid first. However, if no adult is nearby, the child will dial 999 in an emergency. But it isn’t as simple as that as the child needs to know what to do after dialling 999. In a medical emergency the child will be asked to supply information to the operator such as their full name, address, the emergency situation etc. This will help prepare the child on what to expect and boost their confidence as they know what to do. This also gives the operator enough information on what emergency service to provide (fire brigade, police or ambulance).
It is most ideal for the child to use a house phone to dial 999 rather than a mobile phone as the Emergency Services automatically receive the phone number, address and household name of the caller so they are able to trace calls without having to rely on information given to them by the caller, which is particularly useful in the case of a child who is unable to remember or communicate such vital details to the operator. But if they are not able to use the house phone for whatever reason, it’s important children realise they can use a mobile phone if necessary.
More Advice for Children
To help the ambulance or fire service understand where you are and what has happened, speak as clearly and calmly as you can. Try not to rush your words or the operator won’t be able to understand you.
Don’t hang up until the operator tells you to. The operator needs to have all the info they need to get to you a quickly as possible.
step 3 Care
The last step is to ensure the comfort and safety of both the injured person and the child and keep the situation under control whilst they wait for the emergency services.
I will finalise the steps and information when I research the terminology that the children will understand and the amount of sentences I can use per animation for the first aid scenarios.
First aid is: help given to a person who has been hurt or is suddenly taken ill. First aid is the steps you can take before a person gets expert medical help. First aid can sometimes save a person’s life, but more often it is help given in an everyday accident or illness.
First Aid includes:
- Staying safe yourself
- Looking out for danger
- Helping someone feel better and stay calm.
- Getting help – either by telling an adult or phoning 999.
My 4 lessons for children
I think for the 4 lessons included in my project I will have lessons on the following:
- Staying Safe
- Getting help from an adult or dialling 999
- Treating a burn
- Treating a cut/graze
Each of the scenarios will have three simple steps for the children to follow. I will provide the children with a fun assessment activity sheet to recap the lesson and make sure they understand what was taught.
If you are interested in receiving information on how to train your child/children or other children you can sign-up on the following link:
Topics will include:
- How to teach kids first aid
- What to teach them
- Research on their abilities to learn & remember first aid
- Kids in the news for using first aid skills
- Anything else that seems appropriate
All the information is provided by the Canadian Red Cross instructors & trainers so the information is realible.
I’ve signed up and i’m sure it will be useful for my project 🙂
I found an interesting article on children aged between 4-5 years of age learning and carrying out first aid successfully. It’s quite interesting, have a little read:
During a medical emergency, people often lack the skills and confidence to provide effective help. For this reason, when a newborn arrives in the house, new mums and dads may be motivated to take a first aid course to help their baby in case of an emergency.
Skip ahead five years, and it may be that now-kindergartener is the one being taught the life-saving skills: a Norwegian study has shown even young children are able to learn and perform basic first aid.
Ten four and five year-old preschool children at a kindergarten in Bergen, Norway, were taught first aid using the ‘five-finger-rule’ system: look at the person, talk to them, touch them to try to wake them up, call emergency services, and lastly, stay and give comfort. The children also learned how to put each other into the recovery position and how to keep an airway open.
Not Just Playing Doctor
Two months after completion of the first aid course, the children were tested in a scenario where they had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident.
“They were still able to work out whether a person was unconscious or asleep and whether an accident victim was breathing,” explains Dr. Bollig from the Department of Surgical Sciences, Haukeland University Hospital, noting the skills retention. “The children could also remember the phone number of the emergency services and accurately describe their location.”
In a separate test, when one of their teachers pretended to lose consciousness, the children acted as a group to put her into the recovery position.
During the next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. Many effectively used their abilities in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In informal group testing however, most of these children could perform first aid measures. Teaching first aid also led to more active helping behaviours and increased empathy in the children.
“First aid training should begin in the kindergarten, via play, and be reinforced throughout school to increase confidence and encourage people to provide first aid should the need arise,” Dr. Bollig suggested. The benefits may be two-fold: children may be the only persons present in an emergency situation, and instilling confidence early may encourage these children as adults to step in and aid those in need during an emergency.
The study was published in BioMed Central’s open access journal Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine.
You can find the website on the following link: http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/En/News/NewsAndFeatures/Pages/Toddlers-can-learn-first-aid.aspx
What Does this Tell Me?
Children aged between 4-5 can successfully learn first aid and remember it even after 2 months. What is needed now is for children to be taught first aid to gain confidence and help others around them as well as themselves. This does not only concern accidents, but also how to remain safe and prevent accidents.
Children develop at different rates and in different ways and the information I found out will be a guide. I want to found out what children aged between 4-5 are capable of and how they best learn. I believe this is important to research to ensure the children can use, understand and learn from my first aid project piece. I found the following when researching online (I will be researching books soon):
Four year olds can usually understand two or three simple things to do at once, eg “Get a cup of water, take it to Daddy and then put the cup back on the table – http://www.cyh.com
This is important as it means if I instruct children what to do relating to first aid, they will be able to follow a few simple tasks. Example; if someone has a burn the 3 tasks I would teach children is:
- Cool the burn under running water
- Tell an adult
- If the burn is bad call 999
British Red Cross Life. Live it:
A lot of helpful information for children aged 5-11 is available on the British Red Cross website which provides a section for children: http://www.redcross.org.uk/What-we-do/Teaching-resources/Teaching-packages/Microsite/Life-Live-it-first-aid-education-for-children
They believe “first aid is a skill that everyone can and should learn and we all 5-11 year olds in the UK to have the opportunity to learn the skills and gain the confidence to save lives!”
The site is very helpful with the likes of examples of what young children can learn in terms of first aid, what terminology to use to describe things and what kind of images are ok to show them.
When it comes to learning, four-year-olds are developing greater self-control and ingenuity. They can also make plans and complete tasks. Four-year-olds want to try new experiences. They also want to be more self-reliant and seek to expand the areas of their lives where they can be independent decision-makers. (Article from raisingchildren.net.au).
Being able to complete tasks is important to ensure they can learn the important tasks and be assessed by carrying them out to ensure they remember what to do in a certain situation.
An Interesting Survey:
A survey conducted by St John Ambulance on 1552 primary and secondary children found out that:
- 69% of school children wouldn’t know how to treat a friend or loved one who needed first aid
- 72% of these children would like to learn first aid
- 83% would feel more confident helping those around them if they were taught first aid.
The results are interesting as the desire of the majority of the children want to learn first aid and would feel confident in being independent in carrying out first aid. With the lack of first aid training provided for children, I want to fill in the gap with my project.
More Interesting Findings:
- Your child will continue to build awareness and her ability to follow basic health and safety rules, such as fire safety, traffic and pedestrian safety. She can respond appropriately to potentially harmful objects or substances. She knows how to follow routines in emergency situations, and how to seek help if it’s needed.
- Your child now has an increased ability to focus attention, and can ignore more distractions and interruptions. For example, at preschool, she might focus on a drawing even when other children are playing loudly nearby. She might even say, ‘I’ll play later – I want to finish this’. This means she’ll be increasingly able to complete tasks, even those that are longer-term and less concrete.
- Your child will have a growing ability to set goals and follow a plan. For example, he might say, ‘I’m going to pick up all these branches’. And then he’ll work until it’s done.
- Your child might ask to take part in new experiences.
- Your child will seek help from both adults and peers, and has a greater understanding of the kind of help that might be needed. For example, ‘Can you hold this end of the string so I can tie this?’
- At four, she’ll use around 1500 different words but understand even more. By five, she’ll have an even wider range of words that she can understand and use.
- By five, your child will understand and use words that explain when things occur, such as ‘before’, ‘after’ and ‘next week’. She might still have trouble understanding complicated ideas, such as ‘at the same time’.
- Your child’s hand-eye coordination will be getting better, letting her build complex block structures, do puzzles, string small beads together, put small pegs in small holes, use tools such as toy hammers or screwdrivers, and pour sand or liquid into small containers.
- Your child learns coping strategies (for example, using words, pretend play, drawing and so on) to establish greater control and competence in managing intense emotions. For example, after going to the hospital after a bad fall, she might repeatedly play out the experience with dolls and stuffed animals.
- Your child successfully joins in with a group of children.
- Your child will respond more appropriately and sympathetically to peers who are in need, upset, hurt or angry. For example, he might say, ‘Don’t cry, Ahmed. My daddy can fix that bike. He knows how’.
They need to experiment, be introduced to new experiences, discover, investigate, and stretch their imagination and curiosity which I believe can be achieved through an augmented reality origami pop-up.
Turning Learning into Play:
This can really capture the children’s attention and encourage them to learn. I think it’s important to make learning fun so the children remember what they have learnt and want to know more.
“Toys are fun, but toys are also tools that help children learn about themselves and the world around them. Play is critical to the healthy growth and development of children. As children play, they learn to solve problems, to get along with others and to develop the fine and gross motor skills needed to grow and learn.”
Play helps a child do the following:
• Develop physical skills. Gross motor skills are developed as a child learns to reach, grasp, crawl, run, climb and balance. Fine motor skills are developed as children handle small toys.
• Develop cognitive concepts. Children learn to solve problems (What does this do? Does this puzzle piece fit here?) through play. Children also learn colors, numbers, size and shapes. They have the ability to enhance their memory skills as well as their attention span. Children move on to higher levels of thought as they play in a more stimulating environment.
• Develop language skills. Language develops as a child plays and interacts with others. This begins with parents playing cooing games with their children and advances to practical levels such as telling make-believe stories and jokes.
• Develop social skills. Learning to cooperate, negotiate, take turns and play by the rules are all important skills learned in early games. These skills grow as the child plays. As a result, children learn the roles and rules of society.
3 to 5 years olds:
They love to be around other children and enjoy sharing many kinds of activities, including:
• Dress-up with accessories;
• Large bead-threading and lace sets;
• Simple board games (Hi-Ho Cherry-O, Candyland); and
• Puzzles (no more than 24 pieces)
Safety for children:
Another piece of information I found will be relevant to my project from http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu:
Children are just as prone to fads as adults are. Many of the trendy toys will be played with briefly and then pushed aside. Toys that have withstood the test of time are good choices, but many new toys and manufacturers should not be overlooked. The following are questions you should ask about toys before buying them.
• Is the toy appropriate for the child’s age, skills and abilities?
• Will it hold the child’s interests?
• Is the toy well-designed?
• Is it safe? Are there any potential hazards such as sharp edges, parts that can be swallowed or loose ties? Is it non-toxic? Does it meet Consumer Product Safety Standards?
• How durable is it? Will it take rough treatment?
• Is the toy appealing? Does it have long-lasting play value? Is it versatile?
• Does the toy stimulate creativity? The right products in arts, crafts, hobbies, language, reading, music, movement and drama can help to expand a child’s imagination, thinking and comprehension.
• Will the product teach?
• Does it help expand positive self-esteem, values, understanding and cultural awareness? Does it help encourage the growth of self-esteem or values in the child?
• Does it offer practice in eye-hand coordination or fine and large motor skills?
• Does the toy help teach communication skills?
• Is the toy affordable? Does the price match the value received?
• Will the toy frustrate or challenge the child? Does the toy offer an opportunity to think, learn something new, practice or try something that will be beneficial? Or will it be too difficult for the child to use?
• Will the toy help to nurture childhood?
• Can the child use the product by him or herself? Will it help him or her gain independent skills?
• Does the product help the child express emotions, experience care and concern for others, practice positive social interaction? Is there any violence, sexism or negative aspects to the product?
• Is the toy fun? Most importantly, will the child enjoy using the toy? Will it make him or her laugh?
Relax? Feel good? Play is after all a time to have fun.